It is that part of the universe which is under
consideration. There are following types of
In this types of system the transfer of energy
as well as the mass takes place between the
system and the surroundings. eg. Air compressor.
In closed system there is no transfer of mass
across the boundary but the transfer of energy
may take place between the system and the
surroundings. eg. Piston-cylinder arrangement.
This system is completely isolated from their
environment. In this system neither the energy
nor the mass is transferred between system and
the surroundings takes place. eg. Fluid
contained in a thermos flask.
Space or matter outside of a thermodynamic
system is called surroundings or environment.
The envelope which separates the thermodynamic
system and surroundings is called boundary.
The system and the surroundings together form a