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Sand molding:


Sand molding is a process of making sand mould with the help of pattern. The mould cavity of required shape and size is formed in sand by using pattern of same size and shape. This cavity is known as sand mould. Molten metal is poured in this mould and allowed to solidify. After solidification, casting is removed by generally destroying the sand mould. The sand mould can be classified as.

(i). Green sand moulds (ii). Skin-dry moulds (iii). Dry sand moulds


Sand molding methods:

Bench molding – It is used for relatively small moulds. The mould is prepared on a conventional bench. Any kind of sand moulds can be made by this method. The various bench molding methods are

-          Two box molding – Two boxes known as cope (upper) and drag (lower) are used to make sand mould. These are fitted with suitable clamping and locating device.

-          Three box molding – In flange type pattern, a third box known as ‘cheek’ is used to facilitate the molding work. All the three boxes are clamped properly during pouring the metal.

-          Stacked molding – It is used when a number of small castings, each having one flat surface, are to be made. A common passage is there for all moulds to pour the molten metal.

Floor molding – It is used to make medium and large moulds. Generally two boxes (cope and drag) are used to make a mould. It can be used to make any kind of sand mould. It is a very slow and laborious process.

Pit molding – When the size of pattern for mould is very large to be handled in flasks, pit molding is used. Pit acts as a drag part of flask and a separate cope is used above it. Generally green sand is used in pit molding. This method is quite slow and laborious.

Machine molding – This method can be used for any size and kind of sand moulds. It is a very fast method which uses machine to make sand moulds but it requires mounted patterns.          
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