The distribution of biodiversity is not
uniform across the geographical regions
of the earth. Certain regions of the
world have very large number of species.
These regions are called mega diversity
zone. Twelve countries have been
identified as mega diversity countries,
which contain 60-70% of the world’s
biodiversity. India is one of the mega
diversity countries which contribute
approximately 8% of the biodiversity.
Hot spots are the areas which are
reservoirs of plant and animal life and
are severely threatened. There are two
factors that determine a hot spot:
Number of endemic species i.e. the
species which are found nowhere else
Degree of threat which is measured in
terms of habitat loss.
All over the world 25 areas have been
identified as hot spots out of which 4
are in India i.e. Himalayas, Western
Ghats, North East India and Andaman and