Conservation of Bio-diversity is
essential for maintaining and saving
various species and their ecosystems
ultimately for survival of human beings.
The two approaches of bio-diversity
conservation are as follows:
1. Ex-situ conservation:
It is done for conservation of various
crops and seeds when the population of a
species is so fragile that its survival
is no longer possible in its natural
habitat. This conservation is done away
from the natural habitat and hence
referred to as ex-situ conservation.
(a) Botanical garden, zoological parks,
(b) Seed banks: It is the most effective
and efficient method of conserving
diversity in which the seeds are cold
stored for several years. It is usually
kept at -5°C for 5 – 25 years and it’s
viable for 100 years if preserved at
(c) Field gene bank: These are the
places where growing plants of various
genetics species are gathered for
creating a gene pool.
(d) In vitro (i.e. the conservation in
enclosed glass): This type of
conservation is usually carried out in
research laboratories where species are
kept under low temperature for slow
growth and long storage.
2. Ex-situ conservation:
It includes conservation of plants and
animals in their native eco-systems and
is applicable for wild flora and fauna.
It is done by declaring the area as
protected area with the emphasis either
to save that entire area or the
particular endangered species. Example.
(a) National parks: It is an area
strictly reserved for conservation of
wildlife where activities like grazing,
cultivation and private ownership are
not allowed. Each national park
conserves specifically some particular
species of wildlife along with others.
Jim corbet national park was the first
national park of India.
(b) Sanctuaries: These are the protected
areas for wildlife where killing,
hunting, shooting is prohibited however
operations like harvesting of timbers,
collection of miner forest products and
private ownership rights are permitted
as long as they do not adversely affect
the wild life. Eg. Bharatpur wild life
Sanctuary in Rajasthan.
(c) Biosphere reserve: These are
undisturbed natural areas for scientific
study as well as areas where habitat
conservation is done. A biosphere
reserve consist of two zones i.e. Core
zone and buffer zone. Core zone is the
internal area with almost no human
interference and buffer zone surrounds
the core zone where research, tourism,
agriculture activities are carried out.
A biosphere reserve may have one or more
national parks within it. There are 14
biosphere reserves in India. Example.
Nilgiri, Nanda devi, Sunderbans etc.