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United Nations (UN):
 
 

It is an association of nations which have pledged themselves to maintain peace and they will co-operate in solving the social, economic and cultural problems of the world. It was founded in 1945. A charter is signed by 51 nations on 26th June 1945 at San Francisco conference. The charter came into force on 24th October 1945 which is celebrated as United Nations day every year. The charter is the constitution of the United Nations. The Headquarter of UN is in New York.                                                                                   

Aims of United Nations:

1.      To maintain peace and security in the world.

2.      To remove the poverty, diseases and illiteracy in the world.

PRINCIPAL ORGANS OF UNITED NATIONS: 

1.      General Assembly (GA): It consists of representatives from all the member nations. Each member can send 5 representatives but have only one vote. The general assembly has one meeting once a year.

2.      Security Council (SC): It has a total of 15 members out of which 5 are permanent members and 10 are non permanent members. The non permanent members are elected for a term of 2 years by two-third majority of the general assembly. 5 permanent members of Security Council are USA, UK, Russia, France and China.

3.      Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): The economic and social council is responsible for international social, economic, educational, cultural and health related matters.

4.      Trusteeship Council (TC): It is responsible for the well being of dependent peoples of those countries which are not yet fully developed.

5.      International Court of Justice: It considers legal disputes brought before it by nations and they are abide by the decision given by the court.

6.      The Secretariat: The Secretariat is composed of secretary general and an international staff appointed by him. They gather and take decisions regarding the problems. It carries out decisions of the UN.

 

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME:

1.      United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF): It was established in 1946 to deliver post war help to children. It aimed at improving the quality of life for children and mother’s in developing countries. Its headquarter is situated at New York.

2.      United Nations fund for population Activities: It was established in 1969. The fund works for population and family planning.

3.      United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): It was established in 1972. It encourages peoples regarding environmental practices.

 

SPECIALISED AGENCIES:

1.      Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO): It was established in 1945. It aims towards adequate food supply to the nations. It also provides seeds of improved varities. Its head quarter is situated at Rome (Italy)

2.      International Labour Organisation (ILO): It was established in 1919. It aims at improving the conditions of labour. The head quarter is situated at Washington D.C.

3.      International Finance Corporation (IFC): It was established in 1956. It is an affiliate of the World Bank. Its head quarter is situated at Washington DC. 

4.      World Health Organisation (WHO): It was established in 1946. Its aim is to provide the highest possible standard of health to all peoples. Its head quarter is situated at Geneva (Switzerland).

5.      International Monetary Fund (IMF): It was established in 1945. It helps the member nations in expanding their trade. Its head quarter is situated at Washington DC.

6.      United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO): It was established in 1946. It aims at promoting peace and security in the world through education, science and culture. Its head quarter is situated at Paris (France).

7.      International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD): It was conceived in 1944 and began operations in 1946. It aims at developing the underdeveloped countries. It is also known as World Bank. Its head quarter is situated at Washington DC.

8.      World Meteorological Organisation (WMO): It aims at improving the weather observations. Its head quarter is situated at Geneva (Switzerland).

9.      International Telecommunication Union (ITU): The international telegraph union was founded in 1865 and International union in 1906. They were merged to form ITU in 1932. Its purpose is to coordinate the use of telephone, radio and telegraph throughout the world. Its head quarter is situated at Geneva (Switzerland).

10. International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO): It was formed in 1944. It aims at providing the safe international air transport. Its head quarter is situated at Montreal (Canada).

11. World Intellectual Property Rights Organisation (WIPO): It was established in 1967 and came into force in 1970. It aims at protection of Industrial property and Copyright material. Its head quarter is situated at Geneva (Switzerland).

12. Universal Postal Union (UPU): It was established in 1875. It aims at providing the international post service. Its head quarter is situated at Berne (Switzerland).

13. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): It was established in 1957. It aims at contributing the atomic energy for peace and health.  Its head quarter is situated at Vienna (Austria).

14. United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO): It was established in 1967. It helps developing and underdeveloped countries in providing the Industrial policy. Its head quarter is situated at Vienna (Austria).

15. International Maritime Organisation (IMO): It was established in 1948. It aims is to increase safety at sea and helps in the expansion of trade. Its head quarter in situated at London (UK).

16. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD): It began its operations in 1977. It helps developing countries in growing more food. Its head quarter is situated at Rome (Italy).

17. World Trade Organisation (WTO): It was established in 1948. It aims at improving the trades among the nations. Its head quarter is situated at Geneva (Switzerland).   

 
 

 

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